Epimenia babai Salvini-Plawen, 1997(size not recorded)
(lab photo)

Featured Invertebrate Data


Frequency on Okinawa: Collection Data:
[brackets indicate range for all Okinawa-collected specimens of the species]

Species Account:

        Epimenia babai is considered to be rare on Okinawa; I've collected five animals and photographed four additional individuals over a period of more than twenty years of Okinawa diving. In addition to the featured animal above, I've added a second page w/ a series of images of the Okinawan material.

        Baba (1938) originally described Epimenia babai (as E. verrucosa). Salvini-Plawen (1997) later changed the name to E. babai. Baba's original holotype specimen (165 mm long x 11 mm diameter [anterior body]) was collected off Tomioka Peninsula, Kyushu, Japan, at about 40-60 meters.

        The following general description of Solenogastres is from Salvini-Plawen (2008).

        Solenogastres are purely marine aplacophoran animals with world-wide distribution (known at depths of 1 m - 6850 m) and measure between 0.8 mm and 300 mm in length. They live upon fairly firm substrates (densified mud, clay, muddy sand; epizoic) where their laterally narrowed body glides with the cilia of its restricted pedal groove; a few species are mesopsammic.

        With a few possible exceptions, Solenogastres are carnivorous, predominantly feeding on Cnidaria, or even being epizoic on them; several members of the Simrothiellidae appear to feed on sedentary worms (polychaetes). Uptake of food is by means of the radula and/or by a sucking pharynx.


  • The specific name is in honor of Kikutaro Baba (1905~2001), a Japanese malacologist. He was the leading researcher on sea slugs and bubble snails, opisthobranch gastropod mollusks in Japan. Incidentally, here's a list of his numerous publications.

Literature Cited:

  • Baba, K. 1938. The later development of a Solenogastre, Epimenia verrucosa (Nierstrasz). Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Kyusyu Imperial University, 6:21-40.
  • Salvini-Plawen L.V., 1997. Systematic revision of the Epimeniidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres). Jour. Moll. Stud., 63: 131-155.
  • Salvini-Plawen L.V., 2008. Biol. Mar. Mediterr. (2008), 15 (suppl.): 228-230.

        In addition, I've added a link to the current and past featured invertebrates via a list and thumbnails.

        Also, Okinawan tidal information has been upgraded to cover the year 2018 as well as a link to previous years (2011~2017).

Page Date: 01 Jan '18
Page Modification Date: 01 Jan '18
Digitally manipulated photo
Copyright © 2018 Robert F. Bolland